ืขืžื•ื“ ื”ืฉื—ืจ ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”

ืงืจื“ื™ื˜ : ืื•ืจื™ืืœ ืœื•ื™.
ื›ืชื‘ ืœืขื™ื ื™ ื”ืžื–ื”"ืช ื•ืืคืจื™ืงื” ื‘ืืชืจ ื“ื‘ืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ,
ืžื ื”ืœ "ืืจื’ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื•ืขื“ ืœืžืื‘ืง ื‘ืจืฆื—-ืขื" ืœืฉืขื‘ืจ
ื•ื‘ืขืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ื‘ืœื•ื’ "ื”-8 ื‘ืžืื™".


ืจื•ื— ื‘ืœื”ื•ืช ืžื”ืœื›ืช ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืกื•ืจื™ื” ื•ืขื™ืจืง. ื‘ืื•ื’ื•ืกื˜ 2014 ื›ื‘ืฉ ื“ืืขืฉ ืืช ืกื™ื ื’'ืืจ, ืžื•ืœื“ืชื• ืฉืœ ื”ืขื ื”ื™ื–ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืžืขืจื‘ ืขื™ืจืง. ื”ืฆื‘ื ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™-ืขื™ืจืงื™ (KRG), ืฉืืžื•ืจ ื”ื™ื” ืœื”ื’ืŸ ืขืœ ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ืกื™ื ื’'ืืจ ื”ื™ื–ื™ื“ื™ื ื ืกื•ื’ ืขืจื‘ ื”ืžืชืงืคื” ื•ื”ืคืงื™ืจ ืื•ืชื ืœื’ื•ืจืœื. ืขื ื”ื›ื™ื‘ื•ืฉ ื ืฉืœื—ื• ื›-5,000 ื ืขืจื™ื, ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืงืฉื™ืฉื™ื ืœื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ื™ืจื™. ื›-7,0000 ื™ืœื“ื•ืช ื•ื ืฉื™ื ื ื—ื˜ืคื•, ื ืื ืกื• ื•ื ืฉืœื—ื•ย ืœืฉื•ื•ืงื™ ืขื‘ื“ื™ื. ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื” ืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืžืžื ื”ื™ื’ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื, ืžื•ืขืฆืช ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืื•"ื, ืคื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ืื•ื‘ืžื”, ืœื ืฉืขื” ืœื”ื’ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ื™ื–ื™ื“ื™ื ื”ืื•ืžืœืœื™ื. ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืื•ืคืœ ื”ื–ื”, ื”ืชื™ื™ืฆื‘ื• ืœื•ื—ืžื•ืช ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ืœื‘ื“ืŸ ืœืฆื“ ื”ื™ื–ื™ื“ื™ื. ื”ืŸ ืคืจืฆื• ืžืกื“ืจื•ืŸ ืžืื•ื‘ื˜ื— ืžืกื•ืจื™ื” ืืœ ืจื›ืก ืกื™ื ื’'ืืจ, ื‘ื• ื”ืœื›ื• ื•ื’ื•ื•ืขื• ืจื‘ื‘ื•ืช ื”ื ื™ืฆื•ืœื™ื ื”ื™ื–ื™ื“ื™ื ืชื—ืช ืžืฆื•ืจ ื“ืืขืฉ. ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ื”ืฉืงื™ืขื• ืืช ื›ืœ ื›ื•ื—ืŸ ื‘ืื‘ื˜ื—ืช ื”ืžืขื‘ืจ ืžื”ื”ืจ ื”ื ืฆื•ืจ ืืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื”ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื” ืฉื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื”, ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ืชื•ืš ืฉื”ืŸ ืกื•ืคื’ืช ืื‘ื“ื•ืช ื›ื‘ื“ื•ืช ื‘ื—ื–ื™ืช ืื—ืจืช, ืžืื•ืช ืง"ืž ืžื–ืจื—ื” ืžืกื™ื ื’'ืืจ.

ืขื ืฉื•ืš ื”ืงืจื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืกื™ื ื’'ืืจ, ื“ื”ืจื• ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื“ืืขืฉ ื‘ืžืขืœื” ื ื”ืจ ื”ืคืจืช ื”ืกื•ืจื™, ื‘ื•ืื›ื” ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื˜ื•ืจืงื™. ืžืœื•ื•ื™ื ื‘ื˜ื ืงื™ื ื•ืืจื˜ื™ืœืจื™ื” ืคืจืฆื• ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื“ืืขืฉ ื‘ืชื ื•ืคื” ื—ื–ืงื” ืœืขื‘ืจ ื”ืขื™ืจ ืงื•ื‘ื ื™. ื”ื”ืชืงืคื” ืฉื”ื—ืœื” ื‘-13 ื‘ืกืคื˜ืžื‘ืจ 2014 ื”ื’ื™ืขื” ืœืฉื™ืื” ื‘-2 ื‘ืื•ืงื˜ื•ื‘ืจ, ืขืช ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื“ืืขืฉ ื ื›ื ืกื• ืœืคืืชื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ. ืชื•ืš ืฉื‘ื•ืขื™ื™ื ื›ื‘ืฉ ื“ืืขืฉ 350 ืžืชื•ืš 354 ื”ื›ืคืจื™ื ื‘ืงื ื˜ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”, ืฉืžืจื‘ื™ืช ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื• ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื. ื•ื”ื ื” ื ืจืื” ืฉื”ื”ืชืงืคื” ื”ื’ื™ืขื” ืœืงืจื‘ ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ; ื“ืืขืฉ ืคืจืฅ ืœืงื•ื‘ื ื™, ื‘ื™ืจืช ื”ืงื ื˜ื•ืŸ. ื”ื”ืคืฆืฆื•ืช ื”ืื•ื•ื™ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ืžื•ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืงื•ืืœื™ืฆื™ื” ื‘ืจืืฉื•ืช ืืจื”"ื‘ ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืงื• ืœื”ื“ื•ืฃ ืืช ื”ื”ืชืงืคื” ืฉืœ ื“ืืขืฉ. ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื” ืืคืฉืจื” ืœื“ืืขืฉ ืžืขื‘ืจ ื—ื•ืคืฉื™ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื‘ืขื•ื“ื” ื—ื•ืกืžืช ืืช ืจื‘ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืคืœื™ื˜ื™ื ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ื”ื ืžืœื˜ื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืฆื•ืจืจ. ื‘ืœื™ืœ ื”-2 ื‘ืื•ืงื˜ื•ื‘ืจ ื ืคืœื• ื”ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื™ื ืœืขื™ืจ ื•ื›ืŸ ื’ื‘ืขื” ืืกื˜ืจื˜ื’ื™ืช ื”ืžืฉืงื™ืคื” ืขืœื™ื” ื•ืžื’ื“ืœ ืจื“ื™ื• ืื–ื•ืจื™. ื›-130,000 ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ืงื•ื‘ื ื™ ื ืžืœื˜ื• ื‘ืขื•ืจ ืฉื™ื ื™ื”ื ืœื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื”, ื“ืจืš ื’ื“ืจื•ืช ื”ืชื™ืœ, ื‘ืขื•ื“ ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ื”ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื ืžื ืกื™ื ืœื”ื“ืคื. ืื—ื“ ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื”ื•ื ืื™ื™ืœืืŸ, ืฉืชืžื•ื ืช ื’ื•ืคืชื• ืขืœ ื”ื—ื•ืฃ ื”ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ ื”ืคื›ื” ืœืกืžืœ ืฉืœ ืžืฉื‘ืจ ื”ืคืœื™ื˜ื™ื ื‘ืื™ืจื•ืคื”. ืงื•ื‘ื ื™ย ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ืœืžืฉื›ืŸ ืจืคืื™ื. ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื“ืืขืฉ ืฉืœื˜ื• ื‘ื” ืžื›ืœ ื”ื›ื™ื•ื•ื ื™ื ืžืœื‘ื“ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืœ ื”ื˜ื•ืจืงื™. ื”ืžืฆื•ืจ ืขืœ ืงื•ื‘ื ื™ ื”ื—ืœ. ื‘ืืจื‘ืขืช ื”ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ื ื”ื‘ืื™ื, ื“ืืขืฉ ื”ืคื’ื™ื–, ืžื™ืงืฉ, ืฆืœืฃ, ืคื•ืฆืฅ ืžื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืชื•ืคืช, ืฉื‘ื” ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื•ืœื•ื—ืžื™ื ื•ื”ืชืขืœืœ ื‘ื”ื, ืขืจืฃ ืจืืฉื™ื ื•ื—ืชืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื›ื•ื—ื• ื”ืื›ื–ืจ ืœื›ื™ื‘ื•ืฉ ื”ืขื™ืจ. ื”ืœื•ื—ืžื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ืœื ื•ื™ืชืจื•. ืœื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืžืžื™ืœื™ื•ื ื™ ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ื, ืจื‘ื™ื ืžื”ื ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ืฆืขื™ืจื™ื, ืฉื‘ืจื—ื• ืžืกื•ืจื™ื” ื•ืœื ืฉื‘ื• ืืœื™ื”, ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ื ืฉืืจื• ืœื”ื™ืœื—ื ืขืœ ืžื•ืœื“ืชืŸ.

ืœื ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ื™ืฆื ืฉืžืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืœื•ื—ืžื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ืœืžืจื—ื•ืง. ื”ืœื•ื—ืžื•ืช ื”ืืžื™ืฆื•ืช ื”ื“ืคื• ื‘ืขื ื•ื•ื” ื•ื‘ื ื—ื™ืฉื•ืช ย ืืช ื”ืฆื•ืจืจ ื‘ื—ื–ื™ืช, ื‘ืขื•ื“ืŸ ืžื“ื‘ืจื•ืช ืขืœ ืกื“ืจ ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ ื—ื“ืฉ ืื•ืชื• ื™ืฉืชื™ืชื• ื‘ืขื•ืจืฃ. ื”ืขืจื›ื™ื ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ื”ืฆืžื™ื—ื• ื”ืชื ืกื•ืช ื™ื—ื™ื“ื” ื‘ืžื™ื ื” ื‘ืขื•ืœืžื ื•: ืžื”ืคื›ื” ืื ืจื›ื™ืกื˜ื™ืช, ืจื‘-ืœืื•ืžื™ืช, ืกื•ืฆื™ืืœื™ืกื˜ื™ืช ื•ืคืžื™ื ื™ืกื˜ื™ืช. ื—ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื•ื•ื™ื•ืŸ ื•ืื—ื•ื•ื”, ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ, ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ื‘ืžืื” ื”-21, ื›ืžืขื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ืžื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืœื‘ ื”ื’ื™ื”ื™ื ื•ื. ื›ื›ืœ ืฉื ืขืžื™ืง ื‘ืชื™ืื•ืจื™ื” ืขืœื™ื” ืžื‘ื•ืกืกืช ืžื”ืคื›ืช ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”, ื›ื›ืœ ืฉื ื™ืฉื™ืจ ืžื‘ื˜ ืœืคืจืงื˜ื™ืงื•ืช ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ื ื ืงื˜ื•ืช ื‘ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ืฉืœื”, ื ื•ื›ืœ ืื•ืœื™ ื’ื ืื ื—ื ื• ืœื˜ืขื•ื ืžื”ืžืขื™ื™ืŸ ืžืžื ื• ืฉื•ืื‘ื•ืช ืื•ืชืŸ ืœื•ื—ืžื•ืช ืืžื™ืฆื•ืช. ืื—ืช ื”ืœื•ื—ืžื•ืช ืฉื”ืฉืชืชืคื• ื‘ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ื”ืขื™ืจ ืืžืจื”: "ื›ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื‘ืจื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืื•ื™ื‘ ื”ื’'ื™ื”ืื“ื™ืกื˜ื™ ื’ื“ืœื”, ื›ืš ืื ื—ื ื• ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืžื›ืคื™ืœื•ืช ืืช ืžืืžืฆื™ื ื•. ืื ื—ื ื• ื ืœื—ืžื•ืช ื‘ืฉืชื™ ื—ื–ื™ืชื•ืช, ื”ืื—ืช ื ื’ื“ ื“ืืขืฉ ื•ื”ืฉื ื™ื” ื ื’ื“ ื”ืฉืžืจื ื•ืช ื•ื”ืžื™ื ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ื”ืžืกื•ืจืชื™ืช, ืฉืื™ื ื ื” ืžื›ื™ืจื” ื‘ืฉื•ื•ื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ืœื ืฉื™ื".

ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืœื•ื—ืžื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช. ื‘ืฆื”ื•ื‘ โ€“ ืฉืœื™ื˜ื” ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช. ื‘ืฉื—ื•ืจ โ€“ ื“ืืขืฉ.

ื‘-27 ื‘ื™ื ื•ืืจ 2015 ืฆื™ื™ื ื• ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ืืช ื™ื•ื ื”ืฉื•ืื” ื”ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™, 70 ืฉื ื” ืœืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ืื•ืฉื•ื•ื™ืฅ. ืจื•ื‘ื™ ืจื™ื‘ืœื™ืŸ ื ืฉื ื ืื•ืื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ ืขืœ ื‘ื™ืžืช ื”ืื•"ื ื‘ื• ื“ืจืฉ ื›ื™ ืงื”ื™ืœืช ื”ืื•ืžื•ืช ืชืขืฉื” ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื™ื›ื•ืœืชื” ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžื ื•ืข ืจืฆื™ื—ื•ืช ืขืžื™ื. ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื” ื”ื•ื“ื™ืขื• ื”ืœื•ื—ืžื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ืขืœ ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ืงื•ื‘ื ื™, ืœืื—ืจ 1222 ื™ืžื™ ืžืฆื•ืจ. ื”ืขื™ืจ ืฉื•ื—ืจืจื” ื•ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ื ื™ืฆืœื• ืืช ื”ืชื ื•ืคื” ืœืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ืžืื•ืช ื”ื›ืคืจื™ื ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ืชื”.

ื™ื•ืžื™ื™ื ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ืงื•ื‘ื ื™, ืฆื™ื™ื ื• ืื–ืจื—ื™ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืฉื ื” ืœื—ืชื™ืžื” ืขืœ "ื”ืืžื ื” ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”". ืฉื ื” ืฉืœ ืžืœื—ืžื” ืขืงื•ื‘ื” ืžื“ื ื‘ื—ื•ืฅ, ื•ืžืื‘ืง ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™-ืกื•ืฆื™ืืœื™ืกื˜ื™-ืคืžื™ื ื™ืกื˜ื™ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช. ืฉื ื” ื‘ื” ื ืคืœื• ืžืื•ืช ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ื’ื™ื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ื•ื‘ื ืคืœืŸ ื”ื•ืจื™ืฉื• ืœืื—ื™ื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ ืขืฆืžืื•ืช ื•ื—ื•ืคืฉ ืขืœื™ื”ื ื—ืœืžื• ืขืฉืจื•ืช ืฉื ื™ื. ื‘ืชื ื•ืคืช ื”ืงืจื‘ ืฉื—ืจืจื• ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ื‘ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ื ื”ื‘ืื™ื ื˜ืจื™ื˜ื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื ืจื—ื‘ื•ืช, ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืœืคื™ ื›ืคืจื™ื, ืชื•ืš ื™ืฆื™ืจืช ืจืฆืฃ ื˜ืจื™ื˜ื•ืจื™ืืœื™ ื”ืžื—ื‘ืจ ืฉื ื™ื™ื ืžืฉืœื•ืฉืช ื”ืงื ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”. ืœืฉื—ืจืจ ืืช ื”ืื“ืžื” ืžืจื•ืฆื—ื™-ื”ืขืžื™ื ื›ืฆืขื“ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ, ืœืฉื—ืจืจ ืืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ืžื”ืคื˜ืจื™ืืจื›ื™ื”, ื”ืงืคื™ื˜ืœื™ื–ื ื•ื”ืจื•ื“ื ื•ืช, ื–ื”ื• ื›ื‘ืจ ืžืกืข ืฉืœ ืืœืคื™ ืฆืขื“ื™ื.

ื“ืจื›ื” ืฉืœ ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ืœืขืฆืžืื•ืช

ืืฉื™ืชื” ืฉืœ ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืขืฆืžืื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช-ื ื•ืฆืจื™ืช ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื ื˜ื•ืขื” ืื™ ืฉื ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื”ืฉืœื•ืฉื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืžืื” ื”ืขืฉืจื™ื, ื˜ืจื ื™ื•ืกื“ื” ืกื•ืจื™ื” ื”ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ืช. ื›ื‘ืจ ืื– ื–ื›ืชื” ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ืœืชืžื™ื›ืชื ืฉืœ ืžืกืคืจ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืขืจื‘ื™ื™ื ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืื—ืจื™ื ื”ืชื ื’ื“ื•. ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื, ื”ืืฉื•ืจื™ื ื•ืฉืืจ ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื—ืœืžื• ืขืœ ืื•ื˜ื•ื ื•ืžื™ื” ืชืจื‘ื•ืชื™ืช-ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ืช, ื‘ื” ื™ื•ื›ืœื• ืœื™ื”ื ื•ืช ืžืคืจื™ ืขืžืœื, ืœื—ื ืš ืืช ื™ืœื“ื™ื”ื ื‘ืฉืคืชื, ื•ืœื ื”ืœ ืืช ืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ืช.

ื”ืื•ืžื” ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ื”ื™ื ืื—ืช ื”ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ืขืฆืžืื™ื•ืช. ืžืขืœ 30 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื‘ื• ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ืžืžืœื›ืช ืžื“ื™, ืžื•ืœื“ืชื ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ืช, ื”ื ื—ืœืงืช ื›ื™ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื”, ืขื™ืจืง, ืกื•ืจื™ื” ื•ืื™ืจืŸ. ืœื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ืฉืคื” ื•ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ืžืฉื•ืชืคืช, ื•ื”ื ืžืื•ืจื’ื ื™ื ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืช ื‘ืžืคืœื’ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช. ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืขื™ืจืง ื–ื›ื• ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ืœืื•ื˜ื•ื ื•ืžื™ื” ืขืฆืžืื™ืช ื”ื ืฉืœื˜ืช ื›ืื•ื˜ื•ืงืจื˜ื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ืฉืชื™ ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื”ืžื—ื–ื™ืงื•ืช ื‘ื”ื•ืŸ ืจื‘ ืฉืžืงื•ืจื• ื‘ื ืคื˜. ืœื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืžื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ืฉืœ ืขื™ืจืง ื•ืœื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืžืžืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืคืœื’ื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื”, ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ืื™ื ื ื” ืžื‘ืงืฉืช ืขืฆืžืื•ืช ืžื“ื™ื ื™ืช. ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ืจืขื™ื•ื ื™ ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ื‘ืขืฉื•ืจ ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ, ืงื‘ืขื• ืื ืฉื™ื” ื›ื™ ืžื•ืกื“ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ื•ื ื‘ืขืฆืžื• ืฆื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ื“ื™ื›ื•ื™, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืžื“ื™ื ืช ืœืื•ื ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ืื™ื ื” ืฉืื™ืคืชื. ืœืคื™ ื”ืฆื”ืจื•ืช ืžื ื”ื™ื’ื™ื” ื‘ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื” ื•ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื”, ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ืื™ื ื ื” ืฉื•ืืคืช ืœืขืฆืžืื•ืช ืžื“ื™ื ื™ืช ืืœื ืœื›ื™ื ื•ืŸ ืื•ื˜ื•ื ื•ืžื™ื” ืฉืชืืคืฉืจ ืœื” ื”ืชื ื”ืœื•ืช ืขืฆืžืื™ืช, ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ืช, ืกื•ืฆื™ืืœื™ืกื˜ื™ืช, ืคืžื™ื ื™ืกื˜ื™ืช, ืœืคื™ ืฉื™ื˜ืชื” ื”ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ืช, ื”ืžื‘ื•ืกืกืช ืขืœ ืชื•ืจืชื• ืฉืœ ื”ืื ืจื›ื™ืกื˜ ื”ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™-ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ ืžืืจื™ ื‘ื•ืงืฆ'ื™ืŸ.

ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื›ื”ื•ื ืชื• ืฉืœ ื—ืืคื– ืืœ-ืืกื“ (1970-2000) ื–ื›ื• ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื” ื‘ื—ื•ืคืฉ ื”ืชืืจื’ื ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืชืžื™ื›ื” ืžื”ืžืžืฉืœ, ื–ืืช ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืืกื“ ื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื”ื ื›ืืžืฆืขื™ ืœื—ืฅ ืขืœ ืขื™ืจืืง ื•ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื”, ืื™ืชืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืžืกื•ื›ืกืš. ืืกื“ ืืคืฉืจ ืœ"ืžืคืœื’ืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช" (PKK) ืœืคืขื•ืœ ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื” ื‘ื—ื•ืคืฉื™ื•ืช, ื•ืœื”ืงื™ื ื‘ื” ืืช ืžื—ื ื” ื”ืื™ืžื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ืฉืœื”. ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืžื ื”ื™ื’ื™ ื”ืžืคืœื’ื” ื•ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื’ื ืื‘ื™ื” ื”ืจื•ื—ื ื™ ื•ืžื ื”ื™ื’ื”, ืขื‘ื“ื•ืœืœื” ืื’'ืœืืŸ, ืคืขืœื• ืžืกื•ืจื™ื”.

ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ื”ืชื—ืžืฉื” ื•ื”ืชืืžื ื” ืขืœ ืื“ืžืช ืกื•ืจื™ื” ื•ืขื™ืจืง ืœืื•ืจืš ืฉื ื•ืช ื”ืฉืžื•ื ื™ื ื•ื”ืชืฉืขื™ื ืขื“ ืฉื‘-1998 ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื”, ืฉื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื‘ืฉื™ืื• ืฉืœ ื”ืžืื‘ืง ืฆื‘ืื™ ืขื ื”-PKK, ื—ืชืžื” ืขืœย  ื”ืกื›ื ืขื ืกื•ืจื™ื” ืœืคื™ื• ื ืืกืจื” ืคืขื™ืœื•ืชืŸ ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืคืœื’ื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื”. ืขืงื‘ ื›ืš ืขื–ื‘ ืื’'ืœืืŸ ืืช ืกื•ืจื™ื”, ื•ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ ืขืฉื• ื›ืš ื’ื ืฉืืจ ื—ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื”ื ื”ื’ื” ืฉืฉื”ื• ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ืฉื ื” ืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ ื ืขืฆืจ ืื’'ืœืืŸ ื‘ืงื ื™ื” ื‘ื” ื”ืกืชืชืจ ื•ืžืื– ื”ื•ื ื›ืœื•ื ื‘ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื”, ื•ืžื ื”ื™ื’ ืžื”ื›ืœื ืืช ื”ืชื ื•ืขื”.

ื‘ื›ืœื ื”ื—ืœ ืื’'ืœืืŸ ืœืงืจื•ื ื”ื’ื•ืช ื•ื›ืš ื ื—ืฉืฃ ืœื›ืชื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืžืืจื™ ื‘ื•ืงืฆ'ื™ืŸ ืฉื”ืฉืคื™ืข ืขืœื™ื• ืขืžื•ืงื•ืช. ืื’'ืœืืŸ ืงืจื ืืช ื›ืœ ื›ืชื‘ื™ื• ื•ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ื–ืืช ืขื‘ืจ ื”ืคื™ื›ื” ืžื—ืฉื‘ืชื™ืช. ืื’'ืœืืŸ ื‘ื™ืงืฉ ืกื•ื’ ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉืœ ืžื”ืคื›ื”: ืœื ืžื”ืคื›ื” ืžืจืงืกื™ืกื˜ื™ืช-ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ืฉืžื˜ืจืชื” ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ืกื•ืฆื™ืืœื™ืกื˜ื™ืช ื‘ื” ื™ืชืคืชื—ื• ืืœื™ื˜ื•ืช ื—ื“ืฉื•ืช, ืืœื ืžื”ืคื›ื” ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ืขืžื•ืงื”, ื‘ื” ื™ื™ื•ื•ืฆืจื• ืชืื™ื ื‘ืจื™ืื™ื ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ืจื” ืฉื™ืชื•ืคื™ืช ื•ืžืœื•ื›ื“ืช. ื”ื•ื ื”ื—ืœ ืœื—ืœื•ื ืขืœ ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ืžื‘ื•ืกืกืช ืขืœ ืงื”ื™ืœื•ืช ืฉืชืคื ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžื•ื ื”ื’ืช ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื ืฉื™ื. ืœื”ืคืชืขืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื, ืื’'ืœืืŸ ื”ื›ืจื™ื– ื›ื™ ืื™ื ื ื• ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืขื•ื“ ืขืฆืžืื•ืช ืžื“ื™ื ื™ืช, ื•ื›ื™ ืชื ื•ืขืชื• ืœื ืชืชืงื•ืฃ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืืช ื”ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื. ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื–ืืช, ื“ืจืฉ ืื’'ืœืืŸ ืžืื ืฉื™ื• ืฉื™ืชืจื’ืžื• ืืช ื”ื›ืชื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ื‘ื•ืงืฆ'ื™ืŸ ืœื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช, ื•ื™ื™ืกื“ื• ืชื ื•ืขื•ืช ื ื•ืขืจ ื•ืชื ื•ืขื•ืช ื ืฉื™ื ืฉืœ ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื. ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ื–ืืช ืจื‘ื™ื ืžื‘ื›ื™ืจื™ ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ื—ืฉื• ื ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื•ืขื–ื‘ื• ืื•ืชื”. ืœื“ื™ื“ื, ืื’'ืœืืŸ ืขื‘ืจ ืœืขืกื•ืง ื‘ืจืขื™ื•ื ื•ืช ืจื•ื—ื ื™ื™ื ื•ื–ื ื— ืืช ืžืื‘ืง ื”ืขืฆืžืื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™. ืืš ืื’'ืœืืŸ ืœื ื•ื™ืชืจ. ื”ื•ื ื”ืฉืคื™ืข ืขืœ ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื‘ื ื™ ื ื•ืขืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ืฉื ืฉืื• ืืช ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื” ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื ื‘ืขืฉื•ืจ ืฉืœืื—ืจ ืžื›ืŸ.

ื‘ืฉื ืช 2003 ื”ืงื™ืžื• ื—ื‘ืจื™ ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ืฉืฉื”ื• ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื” ืืช "ื”ืžืคืœื’ื” ื”ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ืช ื”ืžืื•ื—ื“ืช" (PYD) ืฉืคืขืœื” ื‘ืžื—ืชืจืช. ื‘ืฉื ื™ื ืฉืขื‘ืจื• ืžืื– ื ืืกืจื• ื—ื‘ืจื™ ืžืคืœื’ื” ืจื‘ื™ื. ื—ืœืงื ืขื•ื ื• ื•ืืฃ ื”ื•ืฆืื• ืœื”ื•ืจื’ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฉืœื˜ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ื‘ืฉืืจ ืืœ-ืืกื“. ืขื ื–ืืช, ืžืคืœื’ืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ื’ื“ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืคืœื’ื” ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื•ื”ื—ื–ืงื” ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื”, ื•ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื’ื™ืขื” ืžืœื—ืžืช ืื–ืจื—ื™ื, ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ื”ื›ืฉื™ืจ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื›ื™ื ื•ืŸ ื”ืขืฆืžืื•ืช ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”.

ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื” ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”

ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ืคืจื•ืฅ ืžืœื—ืžืช ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื”, ื ืกื•ื’ ื”ืฆื‘ื ื”ืกื•ืจื™ ืžื’'ืื–ื™ืจื”, ื—ื‘ืœ ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ ื‘ืคื™ื ื” ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืžื–ืจื—ื™ืช ืฉืœ ืกื•ืจื™ื”, ื•ื”ื•ืชื™ืจ ืœืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื• ืœื”ื’ืŸ ืขืœ ืขืฆืžื. ื‘ื ื™ื’ื•ื“ ืœื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ืื—ืจื™ื, ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืœื ืชืžื›ื• ื‘ืžื•ืจื“ื™ื ื•ืœื ื‘ืืกื“ ื•ืœื ืงื™ื‘ืœื• ื ืฉืง ืžืกืขื•ื“ื™ื”, ืื™ืจืืŸ ืื• ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื”. ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ื ื™ืฆืœื• ืืช ื”ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ืช ืœื” ื—ื™ื›ื• ืžื–ื” ืฉื ื™ื, ื•ื™ืกื“ื• ื‘ืงื™ืฅ 2012 ืืช "ื”ืื•ื˜ื•ื ื•ืžื™ื” ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”". ืื•ื˜ื•ื ื•ืžื™ื” ย ืงื•ื ืคื“ืจื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ืช ืฉื‘ืจืืฉื” ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืฉื ื™ื™ื: ื ืฉื™ืื” ืื™ืฉื” ืœืฆื“ ื ืฉื™ื ื’ื‘ืจ. ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืžื•ืจื›ื‘ืช ืœืžืขืฉื” ืžืฉืœื•ืฉ ืžื•ื‘ืœืขื•ืช ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืกื•ืจื™ื”.

ืชื”ืœื•ื›ืช ืขืฆืžืื•ืช ื‘ืืคืจื™ืŸ, ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ืจืืฉืช ื”ืžืžืฉืœื”

ื”ืžื•ื‘ืœืขืช ื”ืจืืฉื™ืช ื ืงืจืืช ื’'ืื–ื™ืจื” ื•ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ื” ื›-1.5 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื. ืœืฆื“ ื”ืจื•ื‘ ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ ื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื” ื’ื ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ื” ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื”, ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ื” ืืฉื•ืจื™ืช ื•ื›-10,000 ืืจืžื ื™ื. ืžื™ื“ ืœืื—ืจ ื”ื›ืจื–ืช ื”ืขืฆืžืื•ืช ื”ืฆื˜ืจืคื• ืœื’'ืื–ื™ืจื” ืฉืชื™ ืžื•ื‘ืœืขื•ืช ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ืงื˜ื ื•ืช ืฉื”ื›ืจื™ื–ื• ืขืœ ืขืฆืžืŸ ื›ืงื ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”: ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื ืงื•ื‘ื ื™, ืืฉืจ ื ื›ื‘ืฉื” ืžื”ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸ ื”ืกื•ืจื™ ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื“ืืขืฉ ื•ืฉื•ื—ืจืจื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืžื’ืŸ ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื, ื•ื‘ื” ื—ื™ื™ื ื–ื” ืœืฆื“ ื–ื” ืขืจื‘ื™ื ื•ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื. ืจืืฉ ืžืžืฉืœืช ืงื•ื‘ื ื™ ื”ื•ื ืขืจื‘ื™-ืกื•ื ื™ ืืš ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฉืจื™ื ื‘ืžืžืฉืœืชื• ื”ื ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื. ื”ืงื ื˜ื•ืŸ ื”ืฉื ื™ ื”ื•ื ืืคืจื™ืŸ, ื”ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืžืขืจื‘ ืกื•ืจื™ื” ื•ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื• ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ื•ื˜ื•ืจืงืžื ื™ื. ืืคืจื™ืŸ ื ืฆื•ืจื” ืžื“ืจื•ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื’'ื‘ื”ืช ื-ื ื•ืกืจื” (ื–ืจื•ืข ืืœ-ืงืืขื™ื“ื” ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื”) ื”ืžืื™ื™ืžืช ืœื›ื‘ื•ืฉื”, ื•ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื”, ื”ืžื—ืจื™ืžื” ืื•ืชื”. ืœื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืžื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื” ื•ืžื’'ื‘ื”ืช ื-ื ื•ืกืจื”, ืืคืจื™ืŸ ืžื•ื ื”ื’ืช ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ืจืืฉืช ืžืžืฉืœื” ืคืžื™ื ื™ืกื˜ื™ืช, ืกื•ืฆื™ืืœื™ืกื˜ื™ืช ืฉื ื‘ื—ืจื” ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ืจื•ืช ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช.

ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืœื•ืฉืช ื”ืงื ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืื•ื˜ื•ื ื•ืžื™ื” ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” (ื’'ืื–ื™ืจื”, ืงื•ื‘ื ื™ ื•ืืคืจื™ืŸ) ืžื ื•ื”ืœ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืืกื™ืคื” ืžื—ื•ืงืงืช (ืžืขื™ืŸ ืคืจืœืžื ื˜), ืžื•ืขืฆืช-ืขื (ืžืขื™ืŸ ืžืžืฉืœื”), ื—ื•ืงื”, ืจืฉื•ืช ืžื•ื ื™ืฆื™ืคืืœื™ืช ื•ืžืขืจื›ืช ืžืฉืคื˜, ืืฉืจ ืกืžื›ื•ื™ื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ ืงื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื‘ืืžื ื” ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช. ื‘ื’'ืื–ื™ืจื” ื™ืฉื ืŸ 12 ืขืจื™ื, ื•ื ืฆื™ื’ื™ื”ืŸ ื ื‘ื—ืจื™ื ื‘ื”ืชืืžื” ืœื’ื•ื“ืœ ื”ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ื” ืฉื”ื ืžื™ื™ืฆื’ื™ื. ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื”ืขืจื™ื ื”ื ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื. ื‘ื’'ืื–ื™ืจื” 1,161 ื›ืคืจื™ื ืขืจื‘ื™ื™ื, 453 ื›ืคืจื™ื ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื, ื•-50 ื›ืคืจื™ื ืืฉื•ืจื™ื. ืœื’'ืื–ื™ืจื” ืฉื ื™ ืจืืฉื™ ืžืžืฉืœื”: ื”ืื—ื“ ืขืจื‘ื™-ืกื•ื ื™ ื•ื”ืฉื ื™ื” ืืฉื•ืจื™ืช ื ื•ืฆืจื™ืช, ื•ืฉื ื™ ืจืืฉื™ ืคืจืœืžื ื˜: ืืฉื•ืจื™-ื ื•ืฆืจื™ ื•ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช. ื”ืจื›ื‘ ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ ืจื‘ ืœืื•ืžื™ ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ ื‘ื ื•ืฃ. ืืš ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืžืคืชื™ืข ืขื•ื“ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ื•ื ืกื™ืคื•ืจื ืฉืœ ื ืฉื™ืื™ ื’'ืื–ื™ืจื”: ื”ืื—ื“ ืฉื™ื™ื— ืขืจื‘ื™-ืกื•ื ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื‘ืขื‘ืจื• ืžื ื”ื™ื’ ื‘ื’'ื‘ื”ืช ื-ื ื•ืกืจื”, ื•ื”ืฉื ื™ื™ื” ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ืฆืขื™ืจื” ืžืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช. ื”ืฉื™ื™ื— ื—ื•ืžื™ื“ื™ ื“ื ื—ืื ื”ื•ื ืจืืฉ ืฉื‘ื˜ ืฉืžืืจ, ืฉื‘ื˜ ืขืจื‘ื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืจื•ื‘ื• ืžืชื’ื•ืจืจ ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื” ื•ืขื™ืจืง. ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืžืœื—ืžืช ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื”ื•ื ืืจื’ืŸ ื›ื•ื— ืฉืœ 3,000 ืœื•ื—ืžื™ื ืžื‘ื ื™ ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื•ื”ื ื”ืฆื˜ืจืคื• ืœื’'ื‘ื”ืช ื-ื ื•ืกืจื”. ื›ืืฉืจ ื“ืืขืฉ ื”ืชืคืœื’ ืžืืœ-ืงืืขื™ื“ื” ื•ื”ื—ืœ ืœื”ืœื—ื ื‘ื’'ื‘ื”ืช ื-ื ื•ืกืจื”, ื”ื•ื ื”ืชืงื™ืฃ ืืช ื”ืฉื‘ื˜ ื•ื˜ื‘ื— ื‘ืื ืฉื™ื•. ื”ืฉื™ื™ื— ื“ื ื—ืื ื”ื—ืœื™ื˜ ืœืขื–ื•ื‘ ืืช ืืœ-ืงืืขื™ื“ื” ื•ืœื”ืฆื˜ืจืฃ ืœื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื. ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ื”ื›ื™ืจื• ืœื• ืืช ืชื•ืจืชื• ืฉืœ ืื’'ืœืืŸ ืื•ืชื”ย ืื™ืžืฅ ื›ืชื•ืจืช ื—ื™ื™ื.4ย ย ื›ื™ื•ื ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืื•ื˜ื•ื ื•ืžื™ื” ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื›-4 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื, ืžืจื‘ื™ืชื ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ื•ืžื™ืขื•ื˜ื ืขืจื‘ื™ื, ืืฉื•ืจื™ื, ืืจืžื ื™ื, ื™ื–ื™ื“ื™ื, ืฆ'ืฆ'ื ื™ื ื•ื˜ื•ืจืงืžื ื™ื.

ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื ืฉื™ืืช ืงื ื˜ื•ืŸ ื’'ืื–ื™ืจื”

ื”ืื•ื˜ื•ื ื•ืžื™ื” ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืžื‘ื•ืกืกืช ืขืœ ืจืฉืชื•ืช ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ืžืงื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืชืื’ื“ื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช. ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื ืงืจืืช "ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ืœื—ื‘ืจื” ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ืช" (KCK, ืื• Dev-Tem), ื•ื”ื™ื ื”ื•ืงืžื” ื‘ืฉื ืช 2005 ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช. ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ื‘ื ื•ื™ื” ืžื”ืชืื’ื“ื•ื™ื•ืชย ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืžืขืฆื‘ื•ืช ืืช ืื•ืจื—ื•ืช ื—ื™ื™ื”ืŸ ื‘ืืกืคื•ืช ื•ื‘ื—ื™ืจื•ืช ื™ืฉื™ืจื•ืช. ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื” ื”ืงื˜ื ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ื”ืฉื™ื–ื•ืจื™ืช ื”ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื™ื”ย 5ย (ืงื•ืžื•ื ื” ื‘ืฉืคืชื). ืœื›ืœ ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื™ื” ื™ืฉ "ืงื•ืžื•ื ื’ื”" (ื”ืœื—ื ื”ืžื™ืœื” "ืงื•ืžื•ื ื”" ื•ืžื™ืœื” ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ืฉืžืฉืžืขื” "ืžืคื’ืฉ"), ื”ืžืงื•ื ื‘ื• ื ืคื’ืฉื™ื ื‘ื ื™ ื”ื›ืคืจ ืื• ื”ืฉื›ื•ื ื”, ื‘ื ื™ ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื•ื—ืžื•ืœื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช, ืœืงื‘ืœ ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ืขืœ ื—ื™ื™ื”ื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉื•ื˜ืฃ. ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื•ืช ืžืฉืชืคื•ืช ืžืฉืื‘ื™ื, ืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ, ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื•ืชืฉืชื™ื•ืช. ื”ืŸ ืœื•ืงื—ื•ืช ืขืœ ืขืฆืžืŸ ืžืฉื™ืžื•ืช ืœืื•ืžื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ืื—ื–ืงื”, ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ื•ืคื™ืชื•ื— ื”ืชืฉืชื™ื•ืช, ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ื‘ืฉื™ืชื•ืฃ ืขื ืžื•ืขืฆืช ื”ืขื ื•ื”ื ื”ื’ืช ื”ืงื ื˜ื•ืŸ. ืœืงื”ื™ืœื™ื•ืช ื›ื•ื— ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืืฉืจ ืœื”ืชืื’ื“ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืื–ื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื•ื”ืืจืฆื™ื•ืช. ื—ื‘ืจ ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื™ื” ืฉื™ื‘ืงืฉ ืœื”ื™ื‘ื—ืจ ืœืฉืจ, ื’ื ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ืฉื”ืžื•ืขืฆื” ื”ื ื‘ื—ืจืช ื•ื”ืืกื™ืคื” ื”ืžื—ื•ืงืงืช ื™ืืฉืจื• ืื•ืชื•, ืœื ื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœื”ืชืžื ื•ืช ืœืชืคืงื™ื“ ืื ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื™ื” ืฉืœื• ืœื ืชืืฉืจ ื–ืืช.

ืฉืœื•ืฉืช ื”ืงื ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” (ืงืžื™ืฉืœื™/ื’'ืื–ื™ืจื”, ืงื•ื‘ื ื™ ื•ืืคืจื™ืŸ) ืžืชื•ืš ืกืจื˜ื• ืฉืœ ืื™ืชื™ ืื ื’ืœ

ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ืœื›ืœ ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื™ื” ื™ืฉ ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืฉืฉ ื•ื•ืขื“ื•ืช ืคืขื™ืœื•ืช: ื”ื•ื•ืขื“ื” ื”ืกื•ืฆื™ืืœื™ืช, ื•ืขื“ืช ื”ื ื•ืขืจ, ื•ืขื“ืช ื”ื ืฉื™ื, ื•ืขื“ืช ื”ืฉืœื•ื, ื•ืขื“ืช ื”ื”ื’ื ื” ื”ืขืฆืžื™ืช ื•ื”ื•ืขื“ื” ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื™ืช. ื”ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื‘ื•ื•ืขื“ื•ืช ืžื‘ื•ืกืกืช ืขืœ ืจืฆื•ืŸ ื—ื•ืคืฉื™ (ื”ืชื ื“ื‘ื•ืช). ื›ืœ ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื™ื” ืžื•ื ื”ื’ืช ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืฉื•ืชืฃ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื’ื‘ืจ ื•ืื™ืฉื”, ื•ืžื ื”ืœืช ืžืคื’ืฉื™ื ืฉื‘ื•ืขื™ื™ื. ื”ืžื ื”ื™ื’ื™ื ื ื‘ื—ืจื™ื ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ืจื•ืช ื™ืฉื™ืจื•ืช.

ื•ืขื“ืช ื”ืฉืœื•ื ืื—ืจืื™ืช ืขืœ ืคืชืจื•ืŸ ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื•ืกื›ืกื•ื›ื™ื ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื. ื”ืžื˜ืจื” ืฉืœ ื‘ืชื™ ื”ืžืฉืคื˜ ื”ื™ื "ืฉืœื•ื-ื—ื‘ืจืชื™" ื•ืœื ืขื ื™ืฉื”. ื‘ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ื’ืฆ'ืฆ'ื” ื‘ืจื•ืื ื“ื”, ื”ื ืืฉืžื™ื ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืžื•ืœ ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื”, ื ื“ืจืฉื™ื ืœื”ื•ื“ื•ืช ื‘ืคืฉืข ื•ืœื”ืฆื™ืข ื”ื ืžื” ืขืœื™ื”ื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืคืฉืขื• ืฉื•ื‘. ื‘ืžืงืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืจืฆื—, ื”ื ืืฉื ื ืืœืฅ ืœื”ืชื ืฆืœ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืžืฉืคื—ืชื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงืจื‘ืŸ. ื›ืืฉืจ ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื”ื“ื•ืจืฉื™ื ืžื•ืžื—ื™ื•ืช ืื• ืฉืœื ืžืฆืœื™ื—ื™ื ืœื”ื™ืคืชืจ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื•ื•ืขื“ืช ื”ืฉืœื•ื ืžืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช, ื”ื‘ืขื™ื” ืžื•ืขื‘ืจืช ืœื‘ืชื™ ื”ืžืฉืคื˜ ื”ืื–ื•ืจื™ื™ื. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื‘ื›ื™ืจื™ื ื‘ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืžืฉืคื˜ ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืฉื•ืืคื™ื ื›ื™ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืกื›ืกื•ื›ื™ื ื™ืคืชืจื• ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื•ืช ืขืฆืžืŸ, ืขื ื”ืชืงื“ืžื•ืช ื ื™ืกื™ื•ื ืŸ ื•ืขืœื™ื™ืช ื”ื”ืชืžื—ื•ืช ืฉืœื”ืŸ ื‘ืกื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื•ืช.

ื›ืœ ืงื‘ื•ืฆื” ืฉืœ ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื•ืช ืฉื›ื ื•ืช ืžืชืืกืคืช ื‘ื‘ื™ืช-ื”ืขื (Mala Gal). ื‘ื‘ืชื™ ื”ืขื ืžืชืงื‘ืœื•ืช ื”ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ื”ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื‘ืจืžื” ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ืช, ื•ื”ื ืื—ืจืื™ื™ื ื’ื ืขืœ ืจื™ื›ื•ื– ื”ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ื•ื”ื”ืชื ื”ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื•ืช, ื•ืขืœ ืžืฆื‘ืŸ. ื›ืœ ื‘ื™ืช-ืขื ืžื•ืจื›ื‘ ืžื ืฆื™ื’ื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื—ืจื™ื ื™ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืืœื™ื•, ื•ืžืฉืœื™ื—ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื•ืช, ืืฉืจ ืชืคืงื™ื“ื ืœื™ื™ืฆื’ ืืช ื”ืื™ื ื˜ืจืกื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื™ื” ืฉืœื”ื ื•ืœืจื›ื– ืืช ืชืจื•ืžืช ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื™ื” ืœื—ื‘ืจื”.

ื‘ืงืžื™ืฉืœื™, ื‘ื™ืจืช ืงื ื˜ื•ืŸ ื’'ืื–ื™ืจื”, ื™ืฉื ื 7 ื‘ืชื™-ืขื ื•-97 ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื•ืช, ืฉื›ืœ ืื—ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืžืื’ื“ืช ื›-350 ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช. ื ืฆื™ื’ื™ ื›ืœ ื‘ืชื™-ื”ืขื ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื‘ื•ื—ืจื™ื ืืช ืืกื™ืคืช ื”ืขื™ืจ, ื‘ื” ื—ื‘ืจื™ื 22 ื ืฆื™ื’ื™ื, ื•ืืช ืฉื ื™ ืžื ื”ื™ื’ื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ (ื’ื‘ืจ ื•ืื™ืฉื”). ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ืชืคืงื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ื›ืœ ืจืžื•ืช ื”ื”ืชืื’ื“ื•ืช (ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื™ื”, ื‘ื™ืช-ื”ืขื, ืžื•ืขืฆืช ื”ืขื™ืจ, ื”ืืกื™ืคื” ื”ืžื—ื•ืงืงืช, ื•ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื›ื•ืœื”) ืื™ื ื ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ืฉื›ืจ, ืืœื ืžืชื ื“ื‘ื™ื ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื ื‘ื—ืจื• ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ืจื•ืช ื™ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื•ืช, ืืฉืจ ื“ื•ืื’ื•ืช ืœื”ื ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื›ืœื›ืœื™ืช. ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื•ืช ืฉื•ืœื—ื•ืช ืžืชื ื“ื‘ื™ื ืœืฉืจืช ื‘ืื“ืžื™ื ื™ืกื˜ืจืฆื™ื•ืช ื”ืžื—ื•ื–ื™ื•ืช, ื‘ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืžื’ืŸ ื•ื‘ืžืฉื˜ืจื”.

ืžืœื‘ื“ ื”ื’ื•ืคื™ื ืฉืชื•ืืจื• ืขื“ ื›ืืŸ, ื™ืฉื ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ื”ืชืืจื’ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”: ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ ื ื•ืขืจ. ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ื ืืœื” ืžืงื™ื™ืžื™ื ืžืขืจื›ื•ืช ืงื‘ืœืช ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ืžืงื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ืœืืœื• ืฉืœ "ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ืœื—ื‘ืจื” ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ืช" ื•ืžื•ืขืฆืช ื”ืขื, ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ื ืฆื™ื’ื•ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ื›ื. ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ, ื’ื ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ ื”ื ื•ืขืจ ื•ื’ื ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ ื”ื ืฉื™ื, ืžื ื”ืœื™ื "ืืงื“ืžื™ื•ืช" โ€“ ืžืจื—ื‘ื™ ืคืขื™ืœื•ืช, ืฉื™ื—ื” ื•ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ืืฉืจ ื›ืœ ืžื™ ืฉืจื•ืฆื” ืžื•ื–ืžืŸ ืœื”ืฉืชืชืฃ ื‘ื”ื. ื™ืฉื ืŸ ื’ื ืืงื“ืžื™ื•ืช ื›ืœืœื™ื•ืช ืœื—ื™ื ื•ืš ืžื‘ื•ื’ืจื™ื ื”ืคืชื•ื—ื•ืช ืœื›ืœ ืœืœื ื”ื’ื‘ืœื”. ื‘ืžื•ืกื“ื•ืช ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ืืœื” ืœื•ืžื“ื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืชืจ ืืช ื”ืชื™ืื•ืจื™ื” ื”ืื ืจื›ื™ืกื˜ื™ืช ืขืœื™ื” ืžื‘ื•ืกืกืช ื”ืื•ื˜ื•ื ื•ืžื™ื” ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”, ืชื•ืจืชื ืฉืœ ืžื ื”ื™ื’ ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ืขื‘ื“ื•ืœืœื” ืื’'ืœืืŸ ื•ื”ื”ื•ื’ื” ืžืืจื™ ื‘ื•ืงืฆ'ื™ืŸ.

ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื”ืขืฆืžื™ ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ื–ื•ืจื™ ื•ืœื ืจื™ื›ื•ื–ื™, ื”ืจืฉืชื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ืœื ืฉืœืžื•ืช. ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืขื•ื‘ืจื•ืช ืชื”ืœื™ืš ืžืชืžื™ื“ ืฉืœ ืคื™ืชื•ื—: ื ื•ืœื“ื•ืช ืขื•ื“ ื•ืขื•ื“ ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื•ืช, ื‘ืชื™-ืขื, ืžื•ืขืฆื•ืช ืคื•ืขืœื™ื, ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ ื ืฉื™ื. ืฉื™ืชื•ืฃ ื”ืžืฉืื‘ื™ื ื•ื”ืชื›ื ื•ืŸ ื”ื—ืงืœืื™ ื•ื”ืชืขืฉื™ื™ืชื™ ื”ืžืฉื•ืชืฃ ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ื ื•ืžืชืจื‘ื™ื. ื ืจืื” ื›ื™ ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ื”ืžืขืกื™ืง ืืช ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ืชืคืงื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื”ืขืฆืžื™ ื”ื•ื ืคื™ืชื•ื— ื”ืชืื’ื“ื•ื™ื•ืช ื—ื“ืฉื•ืช, ืžื›ืœ ื”ืกื•ื’ื™ื. ื›ื›ืœ ืฉืขื•ื‘ืจ ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ื™ื•ืชืจ ื—ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื ื—ืฉืคื™ื ืœืจืขื™ื•ื ื•ืชื™ื” ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื ื™ื™ื, ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ื‘ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ื” ื™ืฉื™ืจื”, ืคื•ืชืจื™ื ืกื›ืกื•ื›ื™ื ื‘ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ืช, ื•ืžืงื™ืžื™ื ื”ืชืื’ื“ื•ื™ื•ืช ื—ื“ืฉื•ืช ืœืคื™ ืจืฆื•ื ื ื”ื—ื•ืคืฉื™.

ืขืœ ืคื™ ืชื•ืจืชื• ืฉืœ ืื’'ืœืืŸ, ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื”ืŸ ื”ืžืขืžื“ ื”ืžื ื•ืฆืœ ื•ื”ืžื“ื•ื›ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื—ื‘ืจื” ื•ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ืžื›ื‘ืœื™ื” ื”ืงืคื™ื˜ืœื™ืกื˜ื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืชืคืชื— ืจืง ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ื”ื ืฉื™ื. ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื”ืŸ ื”ืžืขืžื“ ืฉื™ื‘ื™ื ืืช ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื”. ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืฉื ื•ืช ื”ืžืื‘ืง ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ ืœืื•ื˜ื•ื ื•ืžื™ื” ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ืช ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืฆืžื—ื” ืชื ื•ืขืช ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื–ืงื”. ืชื ื•ืขื” ื–ื• ืคื•ืขืœืช ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื—ืกืœ ืืช ื”ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ื™ื–ื, ื”ืžื™ื ื ื•ืช ื•ื”ืžื™ื–ื•ื’ื™ื ื™ื” ื‘ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช. ื”ื™ื ืขื•ืฉื” ื–ืืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื‘ืœืชื™ ืคื•ืจืžืืœื™, ื”ืฉืชืชืคื•ืช ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื›ืœ ืชื—ื•ืžื™ ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื•ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื”, ื›ื•ืœืœ ื”ืฆื‘ื, ื”ืชืืจื’ื ื•ืช ื ืฉื™ื, ื•ื™ื™ืฆื•ื’ ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ ื‘ื›ืœ ื“ืจื’ื™ ืงื‘ืœืช ื”ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช.

ืžืขืจื›ืช ืงื‘ืœืช ื”ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ื”ื ืฆื™ื’ื•ืชื™ืช ืฉืœ ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืžืงื‘ื™ืœื” ืœืžืขืจื›ืช ื”-CKC, ื•ืžืงื™ื™ืžืช ืคื•ืจื•ืžื™ื ืžืจืžืช ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื™ื” ืขื“ ืœืจืžื” ื›ืœืœ-ืืจืฆื™ืช. ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืžืงื™ื™ืžืช ืฉื™ื— ืคื•ืจื”, ืคืขื™ืœื•ื™ื•ืช, ื”ื›ืฉืจื” ื•ื“ื™ื•ืŸ ื—ื•ืงื™ ื•ื™ื•ืžื™ื•ืžื™ ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”. ืœื›ืœ ืคื•ืจื•ื ื ืฉื™ื ื”ืžืงื‘ื™ืœ ืœืคื•ืจื•ื ื ืฆื™ื’ื•ืชื™ ื›ืœืœื™, ื–ื›ื•ืช ื•ื•ื˜ื• ืžื•ื—ืœื˜ืช ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ื—ืœื˜ื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืงื‘ืœ ื‘ื ื•ืฉืื™ื ื”ื ื•ื’ืขื™ื ืœื ืฉื™ื.

ื›ืžืขื˜ ื‘ื›ืœ ืคื•ืจื•ื ื ืฆื™ื’ื•ืชื™, ื‘ื›ืœ ื“ืจื’ ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ืกื•ื’ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ืฃ ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื™ืฉื ื• ื›ืœืœ ื”ืงื•ื‘ืข ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ืœืคื—ื•ืช 40% ื ืฉื™ื. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ื‘ืจืืฉ ื›ืœ ื’ื•ืฃ ื•ืคื•ืจื•ื ืขื•ืžื“ ืœื ืื“ื ืื—ื“, ืืœ ืฉื ื™ื™ื โ€“ ื’ื‘ืจ ื•ืืฉื”. ื‘ืจื‘ื•ืช ืžื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื•ืช โ€“ ื›ื•ืœืœ ืืœื• ืฉืœ ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ื•ืืœื• ื”ื›ืœืœื™ื•ืช, ื›ื—ืฆื™ ืžื–ืžืŸ ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ืžื•ืงื“ืฉ ืœืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ ืฉื•ื•ื™ื•ืŸ ืžื’ื“ืจื™.

ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื ืขืฉื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืชืจ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื‘ืœืชื™ ืคื•ืจืžืืœื™, ืื™ื ื˜ืจ-ื“ื™ืกืฆื™ืคืœื™ื ืืจื™, ืฉื”ืชื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ื‘ื• ื”ื•ื ืžื“ืขื™ ื”ืืฉื”. ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื–ื” ืžืชืคืชื— ื‘ืืงื“ืžื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื’ื ื‘ืชื ื•ืขื•ืช ื”ื ื•ืขืจ, ื‘ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ ื”ื ืฉื™ื, ื‘ืฆื‘ื ื•ื‘ืžืฉื˜ืจื”. ื›ืœ ืฉื•ื˜ืจ, ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื”, ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืกืžื™ื ืจ ืฉืœ ืฉื‘ื•ืขื™ื™ื ื‘ื ื•ืฉื ื–ื” ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื–ื•ื›ื” ืœืื—ื•ื– ื‘ื ืฉืง.

ืœื•ื•ืขื™ื“ืช ื ืฉื™ื ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืžืกื•ื’ื” ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”, ืฉื ืขืจื›ื” ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช, ื”ื’ื™ืขื• 220 ืฉืœื™ื—ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืื™ื’ื•ื“ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื. ื”ื™ื• ืฉื ืฆืขื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืžื‘ื•ื’ืจื•ืช, ื—ื™ืœื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื•ื“ืชื™ื•ืช, ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช, ืืฉื•ืจื™ื•ืช, ื™ื–ื™ื“ื™ื•ืช ื•ืขืจื‘ื™ื•ืช. ื”ืŸ ื ืคื’ืฉื• ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื“ื•ืŸ ื‘ืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ืœื”ื›ืจื™ื– ื›ื™ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ื”ื•ื˜ืœ ืœื”ื ื”ื™ื’ ืืช ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”. ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ืฉื”ืชืงื‘ืœื• ื‘ื•ื•ืขื™ื“ื”: ืœื”ืงื™ื ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ืคืžื™ื ื™ืกื˜ื™, ื‘ืชื™ ืงื•ืœื ื•ืข, ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื™ืœื“ื™ื ื•ืกืคืจื™ื•ืช ืœื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืžื—ื•ื–ื•ืช ื•ื”ืขืจื™ื.

ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื‘ืœืชื™ ืคื•ืจืžืืœื™ ื•ืœืžื™ื“ื” ื—ื•ื‘ืงืช-ื›ืœ

ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ื”ืื“ื ื•ืชื™ืงื•ืŸ ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืžื‘ื•ืกืกื™ื ืขืœ ืชื™ืื•ืจื™ื” ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจืชื™ืช ืžืขืžื™ืงื”. ืื—ื“ ืžืขืžื•ื“ื™ ื”ืชื•ื•ืš ืฉืœ ื”ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ืš. ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื•ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืžืชืคืชื—ื™ื ื‘ืžื•ืกื“ื•ืช ื”ื ืงืจืื™ื "ืืงื“ืžื™ื”". ื›ืžืขื˜ ืœื›ืœ ื”ืชืืจื’ื ื•ืช ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื™ืฉ "ืืงื“ืžื™ื”" ืžืฉืœื” โ€“ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ื ื•ืขืจ, ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ื ืฉื™ื, ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืžื’ืŸ, ื’ื•ืคื™ื ื›ืœื›ืœื™ื™ื, ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ื”ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ืช, ื”ืžืคืœื’ื•ืช ื•ื›ืŸ ืืงื“ืžื™ื•ืช ื›ืœืœื™ื•ืช ื•ื—ื•ืคืฉื™ื•ืช. ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื‘ืœืชื™ ืคื•ืจืžืืœื™, ืื™ื ื˜ืจ-ื“ื™ืกืฆื™ืคืœื™ื ืืจื™, ืฉื”ืชื•ืคืขื” ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ืช ื”ื ืœืžื“ืช ื‘ื• ื”ื™ื ื”ืืฉื”. ื‘ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ื ืœืžื“ื™ื ืชื—ื•ืžื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื, ื‘ื”ื ืฉื–ื•ืจื™ื ืชื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจืชื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื•ื’ื™ื ืื ืจื›ื™ืกื˜ื™ื ื•ื”ื•ื’ื•ืช ืคืžื™ื ื™ืกื˜ื™ื•ืช, ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืชื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“. ื”ืœื™ืžื•ื“ ื‘ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ื”ื•ื ืžืฉื•ืชืฃ, ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžื‘ื ื” ืงื‘ื•ืข ืฉืœ ืžื•ืจื” ื”ืžื•ืกืจ ืžื™ื“ืข ื•ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ื”ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ืื•ืชื•. ื”ืืงื“ืžื™ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื›ืœื•ืœ ื’ื ืงื•ืจืกื™ื, ื”ื›ืฉืจื•ืช ื•ื—ื•ื’ื™ ืขื ื™ื™ืŸ. ื”ืชืคื™ืกื” ืฉืœ ื”ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื”ืขืฆืžื™ ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืžืขืžื™ื“ื” ืืช ื”ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ื›ื‘ืกื™ืก ืœื›ืœ ืขื™ืกื•ืง ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื”ืชืคืฉืจ ืขืœื™ื•.

ืงื™ื•ื ืžืฉื•ืชืฃ ืจื‘-ืœืื•ืžื™

ื”ืืžื ื” ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ย ืžืขื’ื ืช ืืช ื–ื›ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžื™ืขื•ื˜ื™ื ื•ืงื•ื‘ืขืช ื›ื™ ื›ืœ ื“ืช, ืžื•ืฆื ื•ืฉืคื” ืžื›ื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”. ืœืžืขืฉื”, ื”ืืžื ื” ืœื ืžืฆื”ื™ืจื” ืขืœ ืขืฆืžื” ื›ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช, ืืœื ื›ืชื•ืฆืจ ื”ืชืืจื’ื ื•ืช ืžืฉื•ืชืฃ ืฉืœ ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื, ืขืจื‘ื™ื, ืืฉื•ืจื™ื, ื˜ื•ืจืงืžื ื™ื, ืืจืžื ื™ื ื•ืฆ'ืฆ'ื ื™ื. ื”ืฉืคื•ืช ื”ืจืฉืžื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื”ืŸ ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช, ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื•ืืฉื•ืจื™ืช, ืืš ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืืžื ื”, ื›ืœ ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื•ืช ืจืฉืื™ื•ืช ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื•ืœืœืžื“ ื‘ืฉืคืชืŸ. ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ ืœืืฉื•ืจื™ื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื•ืช ื”ื’ื ื” ืžืฉืœื”ืŸ (ื”ืกื•ื˜ื•ืจื•) ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื‘ืฉื™ืชื•ืฃ ืขื ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ, ื‘ื”ื ืžืฉืจืชื™ื ื›-30% ืขืจื‘ื™ื ื•ื›ืŸ ื˜ื•ืจืงืžื ื™ื. ื‘ืจืืฉ ื›ืœ ืžื•ืขืฆื” (ืžืงื‘ื™ืœ ืœืžืฉืจื“ ืžืžืฉืœืชื™) ื•ืจืฉื•ืช ืžื•ื ื™ืฆื™ืคืืœื™ืช, ืฉืœื•ืฉืช ื”ื‘ื›ื™ืจื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืœืื•ืžื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื, ื•ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืื—ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืืฉื”. ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ ื‘ืžืžืฉืœื” ืœื›ืœ ืžื™ืขื•ื˜ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื™ื™ืฆื•ื’ ืฉืœ 10% ืžื”ืคืจืœืžื ื˜, ื’ื ืื ื”ื•ื ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ืคื—ื•ืช ืžื›ืš ื‘ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ื”. ืžืื– ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื”, ื ื•ืœื“ ืืจื’ื•ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ืืฉื•ืจื™ื•ืช, ื‘ื• ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื’ื ื ืฉื™ื ืขืจื‘ื™ื•ืช. ืืจื’ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืžืงื‘ื™ืœ ืœืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช. ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืืžื ื” ื›ืœ ืื“ื ื–ื›ืื™ ืœืžืงืœื˜ ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื•ื‘ืคื•ืขืœ ืจื‘ื‘ื•ืช ื™ื–ื™ื“ื™ื ื•ื ื•ืฆืจื™ื ืฉื ืžืœื˜ื• ืžื“ืืขืฉ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ื”.

ืกื•ืฆื™ืืœื™ื–ื-ืื ืจื›ื™ืกื˜ื™

ื”ื—ืœ ืžืจืืฉื™ืช ื”ืžืื” ื”-21, ื•ื‘ื™ืชืจ ืฉืืช ืžืื– ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื”, ื”ืชืคืชื—ื• ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืžืื•ืช ื”ืชืืจื’ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืงื•ืื•ืคืจื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื•ืช ื•ืฉื™ืชื•ืคื™ื•ืช.ย  ืขืœ ืคื™ ืžืฉืจื“ ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื”, ื›-75% ืžื”ืงื ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื•ื—ื–ืง ื‘ื‘ืขืœื•ืช ืงื”ื™ืœืชื™ืช, ื•ืฉืœื™ืฉ ืžื”ืชืขืฉื™ื™ื” ืžื ื•ื”ืœ ื™ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืžื•ืขืฆื•ืช ืคื•ืขืœื™ื. ืœืžืขืฉื” ื”ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸ ืคื•ืขืœ ื›ื›ื•ื— ื”ืžืจื›ื– ื•ืžื—ื–ืง ื”ืชืืจื’ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื›ืœื›ืœื™ื•ืช ืงื”ื™ืœืชื™ื•ืช ื•ืื–ื•ืจื™ื•ืช. ืœืฆื“ ื–ืืช, ื’ื ื‘ืชื™-ื”ืขื ื•ืžื•ืขืฆืช ื”ืขื ื‘ื›ืœ ืงื ื˜ื•ืŸ ืžืคืงื—ื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื”, ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืงื‘ื™ืขืช ืžื—ื™ืจื™ื ืื—ื™ื“ื™ื ืœืžื•ืฆืจื™ ื™ืกื•ื“, ืชื›ื ื•ืŸ ื•ืคื™ืงื•ื— ืขืœ ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ.

ื”ืืžื ื” ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ืžืขื’ื ืช ื‘ื” ืืช ื”ื–ื›ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื”, ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื— ืœืื•ืžื™, ื‘ืจื™ืื•ืช, ื“ื™ื•ืจ ื”ื•ืœื, ื•ื—ื™ื ื•ืš (ื›ื•ืœืœ ื—ื™ื ื•ืš ืขืœ-ืชื™ื›ื•ื ื™). ื”ืžืžืฉืœ ืžืกื‘ืกื“ 40% ืžืžื—ื™ืจ ื”ืœื—ื, ื•ืžืกืคืง ื–ืจืขื™ื ื•ื“ืœืง ืœื—ืงืœืื™ื. ื”ืžืžืฉืœ ื”ืงื™ื ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ืžืงื•ืžื™ื•ืช ืœืคื™ืชื•ื— ื”ืชืฉืชื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื ื™ื™ืช ื›ื‘ื™ืฉื™ื, ื•ืžืžืžืŸ ืืช ืžื—ื ื•ืช ื”ืคืœื™ื˜ื™ื ื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื.

ื”ื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ืจืขื™ื•ื ื™ื™ื ืขืœื™ื”ื ืžื‘ื•ืกืกืช ื”ืฉื™ื˜ื” ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื™ืช ื”ื–ื• ืžืฆื•ื™ื™ื ื‘ืชื•ืจื•ืชื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ืื’'ืœืืŸ ื•ื‘ื•ืง'ืฆื™ืŸ. ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื™ื˜ืชื ื”ืงื ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ืคืจื˜ื™ื™ื ืžืฉื—ื™ืชื™ื ื•ืžืขื›ื‘ื™ื ืืช ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ื ื•ื”ื—ื‘ืจื”. ืคืขื•ืœืช ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ื™ื ืคืขื•ืœื” ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ื•ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ืจืื•ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ืชืชื ื”ืœ ื‘ืฉื™ืชื•ืฃ ืงื”ื™ืœืชื™ ืื•ืจื’ืื ื™, ื‘ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™, ื•ื‘ืžื˜ืจื” ืœื—ื–ืง ืืช ื™ื›ื•ืœืชื” ืฉืœ ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื™ื” ืœืขื ื•ืช ืขืœ ืฆืจื›ื™ ื—ื‘ืจื™ื”.

ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื ืฆื•ืจื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื” ืžืฆืคื•ืŸ ืื• ื“ืืขืฉ ื•ื’'ื‘ื”ืช ื-ื ื•ืกืจื” ืžื“ืจื•ื. ื”ืžืฆื•ืจ ืžื•ื ืข ืžืžื ื” ืžืกื—ืจ ื•ืืกืคืงืช ืžืฉืื‘ื™ื, ืœื›ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืœื›ืœื›ืœ ืขืฆืžื” ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืื•ื˜ืจืงื™. ื‘ืขืฉืจื•ืช ื”ืฉื ื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื•ืช, ื”ืžืฉื˜ืจ ื”ืกื•ืจื™ ื ื™ืฆืœ ืืช ืžืฉืื‘ื™ื” ื•ืœื ื‘ื ื” ื‘ื” ืชืฉืชื™ื•ืช ื‘ืกื™ืกื™ื•ืช. ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืขืฉื™ืจื” ื‘ืžืจื‘ืฆื™ ื ืคื˜ ื’ื•ืœืžื™, ืืš ื”ืžืžืฉืœ ื”ืกื•ืจื™ ื”ื•ืชื™ืจ ืื•ืชื” ืœืœื ื‘ืชื™ ื–ื™ืงื•ืง, ื•ืฉื™ื ืข ืืช ื”ื ืคื˜ ืœื–ื™ืงื•ืง ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืžืจื›ื–ื™ื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื”. ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื™ืฉ ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ื—ืงืœืื™ื™ื ืคื•ืจื™ื™ื ืฉื”ื—ื™ื˜ื” ื‘ื”ื ื”ืื›ื™ืœื” ืืช ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ืื–ืจื—ื™ ืกื•ืจื™ื”, ืืš ื”ื™ื ื ืขื“ืจืช ืžืคืขืœื™ ืขื™ื‘ื•ื“ ืžื–ื•ืŸ. ื›ืขืช, ืžืฉื ื•ืชืงื” ืžืฉืืจ ืกื•ืจื™ื” ืฉืžืจื‘ื™ืชื” ื ืฉืœื˜ืช ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื“ืืขืฉ, ืขืœื™ื” ืœื‘ื ื•ืช ืชืฉืชื™ื•ืช ย ื•ืžืคืขืœื™ื ืžืืคืก. ืœืฆื“ ื›ืœ ื–ื” ื”ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื”ืขืฆืžื™ ื ื“ืจืฉ ืœื”ืฉืงื™ืข 70% ืžื›ืกืคื• ื‘ื”ื•ืฆืื•ืช ืฆื‘ืื™ื•ืช. ืœื›ืŸ ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื”ืขืฆืžื™ ืžืฉืงื™ืขื” ืืช ืžืขื˜ ื”ืžืฉืื‘ื™ื ื”ื ื•ืชืจื™ื ืœืคื™ืชื•ื— ืชืฉืชื™ื•ืช, ื‘ืชื™ ื–ื™ืงื•ืง ื•ืžืคืขืœื™ ืขื™ื‘ื•ื“ ืชื•ืฆืจืช ื—ืงืœืื™ืช. ื”ืžืžืฉืœื” ืœื ื’ื•ื‘ื” ื›ืœืœ ืžื™ืกื™ื ืžื”ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ื, ืืœื ืžืชื›ืœื›ืœืช ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืžื ืคื˜ ื•ืžืขื˜ ืžื›ืกื™ ืžืขื‘ืจ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœ.

ื‘ืจื™ืื™ื•ืŸ ืขื ืฉืจ ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื” ืฉืœ ืงื ื˜ื•ืŸ ืืคืจื™ืŸ, ื”ื•ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื”ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ืฉืœื• ื”ื•ื ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืขื ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื•ืช, ื‘ืชื™-ื”ืขื ื•ืžื•ืขืฆื•ืช ื”ืขืจื™ื ื•ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ืœื”ื ืœื™ืฆื•ืจ ื™ื—ื™ื“ื•ืช ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืงื˜ื ื•ืช ื•ืžืคืขืœื™ื ื›ืœื›ืœื™ื™ื ืžืฉื•ืชืคื™ื, ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื‘ืกืก ืืช ื›ืœื›ืœืช ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืงื ื˜ื•ืŸ ื•ืœื—ื–ืง ืืช ื”ื—ืงืœืื•ืช ื•ืจืขื™ื™ืช ื”ืฆืืŸ ื‘ื”. ืขื•ื“ ื”ื•ื ื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ื›ื™ ื ืขืฉื™ื ื ื™ืกื™ื•ื ื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืœืžืฉื•ืš ืขื–ืจื” ื•ื”ืฉืงืขื” ืžื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ื•ืŸ ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื, ื•ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืื–ื•ืจ, ืืš ื›ื™ ืœื ื™ืงื‘ืœื• ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ืฉืœื ื™ืงื‘ืœื• ืžืจืืฉ ืืช ื”ืžื•ื“ืœ ื”ืฉื™ืชื•ืคื™ ืฉื”ื ืžืชื•ื•ื™ื.

ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืžื’ืŸ

ื”ืฆื‘ื ื”ืขืžืžื™ ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” (YPG) ืžื•ื ื” ื›-50,000 ืœื•ื—ืžื•ืช ื•ืœื•ื—ืžื™ื. ื”ืฆื‘ื ื ื•ืกื“ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื”, ืืš ื›ื™ื•ื ืื—ื•ื– ื ื™ื›ืจ ืžื—ื™ื™ืœื™ื• ืื™ื ื ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ืืœื ืขืจื‘ื™ื ื•ื‘ื ื™ ืžื™ืขื•ื˜ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื. ืœืฆื“ื• ื ืœื—ื ืฆื‘ื ื”-PKK ื”ืคื•ืขืœ ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื‘ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื”. ื›-33% ืžืžืฆื‘ืช ื”ืงืจื‘ ืฉืœ ื”-YPG ื•ื›-40% ืžื”-PKK ื”ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื. ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื‘-YPG ืžืื•ื’ื“ื•ืช ื‘"ื™ื—ื™ื“ื•ืช ืœื”ื’ื ืช ื”ื ืฉื™ื" (YPJ), ื›ื•ื— ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ ื”ืžื•ืจื›ื‘ ืžื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืœื‘ื“, ื•ืžืชื ื”ืœ ื‘ืขืฆืžืื•ืช ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ืช, ื•ื‘ื• ืžืฉืจืชื•ืช ื›-10,000 ืœื•ื—ืžื•ืช.

ื”ืฆื‘ื ื”ืขืžืžื™ ืคื™ืชื— ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืช ืื ืจื›ื™ื•ืช, ื—ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ื•ืช ื•ืฉื•ื•ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ืœื ื”ืœ ืืช ืขืฆืžื•, ื‘ืฉื•ื ื” ืžื›ืœ ืฆื‘ื ืื—ืจ ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื•. ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ืžืงื“ื™ืฉื™ื ื”ื—ื™ื™ืœื™ื ืฉืขืชื™ื™ื ืœืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ ืชื™ืื•ืจื™ื•ืช ืคืžื™ื ื™ืกื˜ื™ื•ืช, ืกื•ืฆื™ืืœื™ืกื˜ื™ื•ืช ื•ืื ืจื›ื™ืกื˜ื™ื•ืช, ืชื•ืš ืงืจื™ืืช ื˜ืงืกื˜ื™ื ื•ื“ื™ื•ื ื™ื. ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืฆื‘ื ืžืคืงื“ื™ื ืงื‘ื•ืขื™ื ื•ื“ืจื’ื•ืช, ืืœื ืžืขืจื›ืช ื‘ื—ื™ืจื•ืช ืคื ื™ืžื™ืช ื‘ื” ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื•ืช ื‘ื•ื—ืจื•ืช ืืช ืžืคืงื“ื™ื”ืŸ ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืืจืขื™. ืœืจื•ื‘ ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืžืคืงื“ื™ื ืœืคืขื•ืœื•ืช ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื•ืช ืื• ืชืงื•ืคื•ืช ืงืฆืจื•ืช, ืžืœื‘ื“ ืžืคืงื“ื™ื ืื–ื•ืจื™ื™ื, ื”ืžืฉืจืชื™ื ื‘ืชืคืงื™ื“ื ืœืฉื™ืฉื” ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ื. ื”ืฆื‘ื ื”ืขืžืžื™ ื‘ื™ื˜ืœ ืืช ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืขื•ื ืฉื™ื, ื•ืืช ื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื ื”ื—ืฉืื™ื™ื. ื›ืžื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”, ืขื™ื ื•ื™ื™ื ืžื›ืœ ืกื•ื’ ืืกื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืชื›ืœื™ืช.

ืœืฆื“ ื”ืฆื‘ื ื”ืขืžืžื™ ื ืœื—ืžื™ื ืžืกืคืจ ืฆื‘ืื•ืช ื”ื ื”ื ื™ื ืžืื•ื˜ื•ื ื•ืžื™ื” ืžืœืื” ืคื ื™ืžื” ื•ืชื™ืื•ื ืžืœื ืขื ื”-YPG ื‘ืžื™ืœื•ื™ ื”ืžืฉื™ืžื•ืช. ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื”ื•ื ื”ืฆื‘ื ื”ืืฉื•ืจื™ (ื”ืกื•ื˜ื•ืจื•) ื•ืœืฆื™ื“ื• ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืจ ื”ืืฉื•ืจื™ื ื”ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ื›ื•ืœื ื‘ืฉื™ืชื•ืฃ ืžืœื ืขื ื”-YPG. ื›ื•ื— ืฆื‘ืื™ ื ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื”ืฆื˜ืจืฃ ื ืงืจื "ื‘ืจื™ื’ื“ื•ืช ื”ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ื”ืื™ื ื˜ืจื ืฆื™ื•ื ืœื™ื•ืช". ื–ื”ื• ื›ื•ื— ืฆื‘ืื™ ืฉืœ ืงื•ืืœื™ืฆื™ื” ืฉืœ ืžืคืœื’ื•ืช ืžืจืงืกื™ืกื˜ื™ื•ืช ืžืืจืžื ื™ื”, ืกืคืจื“, ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื”, ื™ื•ื•ืŸ, ื•ืืœื‘ื ื™ื”. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœืืœื” ื”ื•ืงืžื” ื™ื—ื™ื“ื” ื‘ืฉื "ื”ืืจื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”" ื‘ื” ืžืฉืจืชื™ื ืžืชื ื“ื‘ื™ื ื”ืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืžื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื.

ืœืฆื“ ืืœื” ืคื•ืขืœืช ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ืช ื•ืฉืžื” ืืกืื™ืฉ. ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ื–ื• ืฉืžื” ืœื” ื›ืžื˜ืจื” ืœื”ื›ืฉื™ืจ ืืช ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ืื–ืจื—ื™ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืœืคืขื•ืœื•ืช ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืจ ืงื”ื™ืœืชื™ ื‘ืžื˜ืจื” ืœื™ื™ืชืจ ืืช ืขืฆืžื” ื‘ืขืชื™ื“. ื”ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ืžืฉืงื™ืขื” ืื ืจื’ื™ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื”ื›ืฉืจืช ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ืœืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ื”ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืจ ื•ืจื•ืื” ื‘ืคืขื•ืœืช ื”ื”ื›ืฉืจื” ื›ืขื™ืงืจ ืชืคืงื™ื“ื”.

ืœืฆื“ ื›ื•ื— ื”ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืจ, ืืฉืจ 25% ืžืžืฆื‘ืชื• ื ืฉื™ื, ื”ื•ืงืžื” ื™ื—ื™ื“ืช ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืจ ื‘ื” ืžืฉืจืชื•ืช ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ื•ืžื˜ืจืชื” ืœื”ื’ืŸ ืขืœ ื–ื›ื•ื™ื•ืช ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ืœื“ื™ื. ื™ื—ื™ื“ื” ื–ื• ืจืฉืื™ืช ืœื”ืชืขืจื‘ ื‘ืกื›ืกื•ื›ื™ื ืžืฉืคื—ืชื™ื™ื ื•ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื ืขืจื•ืช ืฉื ืคื’ืขื• ืžื‘ื™ืชืŸ. ื”ืžืฉื˜ืจื” ืžืกื™ื™ืขืช ืœื ืฉื™ื ืฉื ื™ืฉืื• ืฉืœื ืžืจืฆื•ื ืŸ, ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืฉื ืคื’ืขื• ืžืืœื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื•ื›ื“ื•ืžื”. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœืืœื” ืžืฉื˜ืจืช ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืžืกื™ื™ืขืช ื‘ืคืขื•ืœื•ืช ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืจ ืฉื•ื˜ืคื•ืช.

ืื•ื˜ื•ืคื™ื” ื‘ืœื‘ ื”ื’ื™ื”ื™ื ื•ื

ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ืžื•ื“ืจื ื™ืช ื”ื™ื ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืžื‘ื•ืกืกืช ืขืœ ื—ืฆื™ืฆื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ืย  ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸ. ื”ืฉืœื˜ื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื• ืฉื•ืืคื™ื ืœื›ื•ื ืŸ ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ื™ืจืืจื›ื™ืช ืื˜ื•ืžื”, ื”ืžืฉืžืจืช ืืช ื›ื•ื—ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืืœื™ื˜ื•ืช, ื›ืš ืฉื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ืžื•ืคืงื“ ืชืžื™ื“ ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ืืœื™ื˜ื•ืช. ื”ืฉืœื˜ื•ื ื•ืช ืžืฉืจืชื™ื ืื™ื ื˜ืจืกื™ื ืฉืœ ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ืขืœื™ ื›ื•ื— ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™, ืฉืœื™ื˜ื” ืฉืœ ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื ืฉื™ื, ื”ื”ื™ืจืจื›ื™ื” ื’ื–ืขื™ืช ื•ืœืื•ืžื™ืช, ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ืชื•ืš ืื˜ื•ืžื™ื–ืฆื™ื” ืฉืœ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ื—ื‘ืจื”. ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื”ื’ื‘ื™ืจ ืืช ืฆื•ืจืช ืื•ืคื™ื• ื”ืงืคื™ื˜ืœื™ืกื˜ื™, ื ืœื—ื ื”ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸ ื ื’ื“ ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ืžืื•ืจื’ื ื™ื ืื• ืžืฉื•ืชืคื™ื. ื—ื™ื–ื•ืง ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื, ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ืื• ืงื‘ื•ืฆื•ืช ืืชื ื™ื•ืช, ื ืชืคืก ื‘ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ืงืคื™ื˜ืœื™ืกื˜ื™ืช ื›ืฉื—ื™ืชื•ืช ืื• ื ืคื•ื˜ื™ื–ื. ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื™ื•ืฆืจืช ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ืื—ืจืช ื‘ื” ื”ื›ื•ื— ื ืชื•ืŸ ืœืจืฉืช ืฉืœ ื”ืชืื’ื“ื•ื™ื•ืช ืื–ืจื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืœื•ืช ืขืฆืžื”, ื›ืš ืฉืœืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื”ื›ื•ื— ืœื ื”ืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ื”ื. ื”ื—ืœ ืžืงื”ื™ืœื™ื•ืช ืžืงื•ืžื™ื•ืช ืืฉืจ ืžื•ืจื›ื‘ื•ืช ืžืžืกืคืจ ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื”ืžืื’ื“ื•ืช ืžืฉืื‘ื™ื, ื•ืขื“ ืœืชื ื•ืขื•ืช ื ื•ืขืจ ื‘ื”ื ืžืชื—ื ื›ื™ื ืœืชืคื™ืกืช ื”ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช. ื”ื—ืœ ืžืชื ื•ืขืช ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื–ืงื” ื•ืขื“ ืœืื•ื˜ื•ื ื•ืžื™ื•ืช ืœื”ืŸ ื–ื•ื›ื•ืช ืงื‘ื•ืฆื•ืช ืืชื ื™ื•ืช โ€“ ื›ืœ ืฆื•ืจืช ื”ืชืื’ื“ื•ืช ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื–ื›ืชื” ืœื”ื›ืจื” ืจืฉืžื™ืช ื‘ืžืขืจื›ืช ืงื‘ืœืช ื”ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื—ื•ืง. ืœืžืขืฉื”, ื”ืžื•ืขืฆื•ืช ื”ื ื‘ื—ืจื•ืช ืขื•ืกืงื•ืช ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืจืช ื”ืชืื’ื“ื•ื™ื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช, ื•ื‘ืžืชืŸ ืชื•ืงืฃ ื”ื•ืœืš ื•ื’ื•ื‘ืจ (ื›ืœื›ืœื™, ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ ื•ื—ื™ื ื•ื›ื™) ืœื›ืœ ืื—ืช ืžื”ื”ืชืื’ื“ื•ื™ื•ืช.

ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ื‘ื ืชื” ืืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ื‘ืžืฉืš ื›ืžื” ืขืฉื•ืจื™ื. ืžื” ืฉืืคืฉืจ ืœืชื ื•ืขื” ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื” ืœื ืฆืœ ืืช ืจื’ืข ื”ื”ื›ืจืขื” ืฉื ืคืœ ื‘ื™ื“ื”, ื”ื™ื” ื”ืจืฉืช ื”ืžืกื•ืขืคืช ืฉืœ ื”ื”ืชืื’ื“ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ื•ื•ืœื•ื ื˜ืจื™ื•ืช ืฉื ื•ืกื“ื• ืœืื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื ื™ื. ืชื ื•ืขื” ื–ื• ื™ืœื“ื” ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื”ืชืืจื’ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช: ื”ืชื ื•ืขื” ื”ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ื”ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ืช, ืฉื™ืฆืจื” ืžืื– 2005 ืžืขืจื›ืช ืขื ืคื” ืฉืœ ื”ืชืืจื’ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ื•ืช ืืฉืจ ืžืงื‘ืœื•ืช ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ืžืœืžื˜ื” ืœืžืขืœื”; ืืจื’ื•ืŸ ื”ืฆื‘ื ื”ืขืžืžื™, ื”ืื ืจื›ื™ืกื˜ื™ ื•ื”ืคืžื™ื ื™ืกื˜ื™; ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืืฉืจ ืžืื’ื“ืช ืืช ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ื›ื›ื•ื— ืžืจื›ื–ื™ ืœืชื™ืงื•ืŸ ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช, ื•ืืฉืจ ืžื”ื•ื•ื” ืชื ื•ืขื” ืคื•ืœื™ื˜ื™ืช ื•ื—ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ืช ืฉืœืžื” ื•ืชื ื•ืขื•ืช ื”ื ื•ืขืจ.

ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื’ื™ืขื” ืฉืขืช ื”ื›ื•ืฉืจ, ืคื™ืชื—ื• ืื ืฉื™ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืืช ื”ืชื ื•ืขื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ืœืžืขืจื›ื•ืช ืžืงื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ืขื ื™ื—ืกื™ื ืžืกื•ืขืคื™ื ื•ื—ื™ืชื•ืš ืื™ื‘ืจื™ื, ืืฉืจ ื‘ื›ื•ื—ืŸ ืœื ื”ืœ ืืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจื”. ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ืชื•ืš ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ืขืœ ื›ื›ืœื™ ื™ืกื•ื“ ื”ืžื™ื™ืฆื’ื™ื ืืช ืขืžื•ื“ื™ ื”ืชื•ื•ืš ื”ืขืจื›ื™ื™ื ืฉืœืฉืžื ื™ืฆืจื• ืžืขืจื›ืช ื–ื•: ื–ื›ื•ืช ื”ื•ื•ื˜ื• ืฉืœ ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ ื”ื ืฉื™ื, ื™ื™ืฆื•ื’ ืืชื ื™ ื•ืžื’ื“ืจื™ ืžืฉื•ืœื‘ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืžื•ืกื“ื•ืช, ื•ื•ืœื•ื ื˜ืจื™ื•ืช, ื ื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ื›ืœ ืชืคืงื•ื“ื™ ื”ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸ, ื‘ื™ื–ื•ืจ ื›ื•ื— ื•ืขื•ื“.

ืžืœื—ืžืช ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื‘ืกื•ืจื™ื” ืžื•ื˜ื˜ื” ืืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ืกื•ืจื™ืช ืœืขื“. ื‘ืชื•ืš ื›ืš ื”ืจืฆื—ื ื•ืช ื”ืงื ืื™ืช ืฉืœ ื“ืืขืฉ ื•ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ ืžื•ืจื“ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืžื—ื“, ื•ื”ืื›ื–ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ืคื•ืฉืขืช ืฉืœ ืžืฉื˜ืจ ืืกื“ ืžืื™ื“ืš ื›ืžื•ื”ื ื›ืืงืกืžืคืœืจ ืœื“ืžื•ืชื” ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ืจื”. ื‘ื ื™ื’ื•ื“ ืœื”ืชื™ื™ืžืจื•ืช "ื”ืจืคื•ื‘ืœื™ืงื” ื”ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกื•ืจื™ืช" ืœืžืฉื•ืœ ื‘ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ื™ื” ื”ืจื‘-ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ื‘ืฉื•ื˜ื™ื, ื•ื‘ื ื™ื’ื•ื“ ืœื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ย "ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ืืกืœืืžื™ืช" ืœืžืฉื•ืœ ื‘ื ืชื™ื ื™ื” ื‘ืขืงืจื‘ื™ื, ืžืฆื™ื‘ื” ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืžื•ื“ืœ ื”ืคื•ืš ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ. ื‘ื ื™ื’ื•ื“ ืœืชืœื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื ื—ื™ืœื” ื”ืจืคื•ื‘ืœื™ืงื” ืฉืœ ืืกื“, ื‘ื” ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื ื•ืชืจ ื—ืœืฉ ื•ื‘ื•ื“ื“ ืืœ ืžื•ืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื•ื”ื”ื•ืŸ, ื•ื‘ื ื™ื’ื•ื“ ืœืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ื ื•ืงืฉื” ืฉืœ ื“ืืขืฉ, ืฉื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ื” ื”ื ื—ืกืจื™ ื›ืœ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸ, ืžืฆื™ืขื” ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืฉื™ื˜ื” ื—ื“ืฉื”. ืžืขืจื›ืช ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ื‘ื” ื‘ื ื™ ื”ืื“ื ืžืชืื’ื“ื™ื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื•ื•ืœื•ื ื˜ืืจื™, ื”ืžืชื—ื“ืฉ ื—ื“ืฉื•ืช ืœื‘ืงืจื™ื, ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื ื”ืœ ืืช ืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ื”ื ื‘ืžืฉื•ืชืฃ. ื‘ืขื•ื“ื ืžืชืื’ื“ื™ื ื ืขืฉื™ืช ื”ืžื”ืคื›ื”: ืžื”ืคื›ื” ืฉื‘ืœื‘ ื”ืžืขื– ืœืฉื ื•ืช ื•ืœื”ืฉืชื ื•ืช ื•ืžื”ืคื›ื” ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ื”ืžืขื ื™ืงื” ืขื•ื“ ื•ืขื•ื“ ืขืฆืžื•ืช ืœืชืื™ื ื”ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ืืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจื”. ื”ืฉื™ื˜ื” ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืžื›ืคื™ืคื” ืืช ื”ื›ื•ื— ืœื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ืื ื•ืฉื™ืช. ื’ื ื‘ื—ื‘ืจื” ื–ื• ื™ืฉ ื›ื•ื—, ืืœื ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื•ื–ืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืื•ืžื™ื ื•ืžื’ื“ืจื™ื, ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ื“ื™ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ืชื“ื™ืจ, ื•ื–ืืช ื‘ื”ืกื›ืžื” ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ืจื—ื‘ื”. ื›ืœ ื”ื—ืœื˜ื” ื ื“ืจืฉืช ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ื“ืจืš ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื•ืช. ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืฆื‘ ื™ื›ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืœื”ื˜ื™ืœ ื•ื•ื˜ื•. ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ืกืžื›ื•ืช ืœืงื‘ืœ ื”ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ื”ื ืชืžื™ื“ ืฉืชื™ื™ื: ื’ื‘ืจ ื•ืืฉื” ื‘ื ื™ ืœืื•ืžื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื. ื”ื›ื•ื— ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืžื•ื’ื‘ืœ, ื•ื”ื•ื ื ื•ื˜ื” ืœื ื–ื•ืœ ืžื”ื”ื•ืŸ ื•ืžื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ืชืคืงื™ื“ื™ื ืœื—ื‘ืจื” ื›ื•ืœื”.

ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ืงื•ื‘ื ื™, ื‘ืงื™ืฅ 2015, ื”ื›ืจื™ื– ื”ืจื•ื“ืŸ ื”ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ ืจื’'ืค ืืจื“ื•ืืŸ ื›ื™ ื™ืฆื ืœืžืœื—ืžื” ื‘ื“ืืขืฉ ื•ื‘ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”. ืžืื–, ื‘ื ื™ื’ื•ื“ ืœื”ืฆื”ืจื•ืช ืขืœ ืžืœื—ืžื” ื‘ื“ืืขืฉ, ื”ืคืฆื™ืฅ ืฆื‘ื ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื” ืืช ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื‘ืžืขืœ 300 ื”ืคืฆืฆื•ืช ืื•ื•ื™ืจื™ื•ืช ืœืขื•ืžืช 3 ื”ืคืฆืฆื•ืช ื ื’ื“ ืืจื’ื•ืŸ ื”ื˜ืจื•ืจ. ืืจื“ื•ืืŸ ื”ื›ื ื™ืก ื›ื•ื—ื•ืช ืงืจืงืขื™ื™ื ืœืกื•ืจื™ื” ื•ืœืขื™ืจืง ื‘ืžืจื“ืฃ ืื—ืจ ืœื•ื—ืžื™ื ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ื•ื‘ืžืงื‘ื™ืœ ื”ื˜ื™ืœ ืžืฆื•ืจ ืขืœ ืขืจื™ื ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื”. ืœื”ื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืžืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช, ืฉืคืขื•ืœื•ืชื™ื” ื”ืฆื‘ืื™ื•ืช ืžื›ื•ื•ื ื•ืช ื›ื ื’ื“ ื”ืฆื‘ื ื”ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ ื‘ืžื˜ืจื” ืœื”ื’ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื, ืคืขื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืฆื‘ื ื”ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ ื”ืจื’ื• ืขื“ ื›ื” ืžืขืœ 160 ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื ื‘ื˜ื•ืจืงื™ื” ื•ืžืกืคืจ ืœื ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉืœ ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื”.

ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืงืžื” ื‘ืชื ืื™ ืชื•ืคืช, ืืฉืจ ื‘ื”ื ืœื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื“ืžื™ื™ืŸ ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ื”ืคืขืœืช ื›ื•ื— ืœื˜ื•ื‘ืช ื”ื’ื ื” ืขืฆืžื™ืช. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ ืœื–ื”, ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืงืžื” ื‘ืชื ืื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืฆื•ืจ ื›ืœื›ืœื™, ื‘ื“ืœื•ืช ืฉื”ื•ื ืฆื—ื” ืœืื•ืจืš ื”ืฉื ื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฉืœื˜ื•ื ื•ืช ืกื•ืจื™ื”, ื‘ืžืขืจื›ืช ื—ื‘ืจืชื™ืช ืงืคื™ื˜ืœื™ืกื˜ื™ืช ื”ืžื‘ื•ืกืกืช ืขืœ ื ื™ืฆื•ืœ ื•ื—ื‘ืจื” ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ื™ืกื˜ื™ืช ื•ืžืคื•ืœื’ืช ืืชื ื™ืช. ืขืœ ืืฃ ื—ื•ืกืจ ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ื”ืฉื•ืจืจ ื•ืžืฆื‘ ื”ืื™ื•ื ื”ืชืžื™ื“ื™ ื™ื•ืกื“ื” ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืžืขืจื›ืช ื“ืžื•ืงืจื˜ื™ืช ื‘ื™ื–ื•ืจื™ืช. ืขืœ ืืฃ ื”ืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืฆื‘ืื™ ื”ื“ื•ื—ืง ื”ืฆื‘ื ืžืคืขื™ืœ ื‘ื—ื™ืจื•ืช ืคื ื™ืžื™ื•ืช ื•ืžืขื ื™ืง ื—ื•ืคืฉ ื”ืชื ื”ืœื•ืช ืคื ื™ืžื™ ืœื›ื•ื— ื ืฉื™ ื•ืœื›ื•ื— ืืฉื•ืจื™. ืขืœ ืืฃ ื”ืืžื‘ืจื’ื• ื•ื”ื“ื•ื—ืง ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื™ ืžืกืจื‘ื™ื ืื–ืจื—ื™ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ืœืงื‘ืœ ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ืืฉืจ ืœื ื™ืืคืฉืจื• ืœื”ื ืœืงื™ื™ื ืžื•ื“ืœ ืฉืชืคื ื™. ื›ืœ ืืœื” ื”ื ืžืกื™ืžื ื™ื” ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ืฉื•ืืคืช ืœื—ื™ื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ื‘ื•ื ื” ืืช ืขืฆืžื” ื›ื™ืฆื™ืจื” ืžืืจื™ื›ืช ื™ืžื™ื. ืืœื• ื”ื ืื•ืชื•ืช ืฉืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืจื” ืืฉืจ ื‘ื›ื•ื—ื ืœื”ืคื™ืฅ ืืช ืื•ืจื ืœืื ื•ืฉื•ืช ื›ื•ืœื”. ืžื™ ื™ื™ืชืŸ ื•ืขืžื•ื“ ื”ืฉื—ืจ ืฉืœ ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื™ืื™ืจ ื’ื ืขืœื™ื ื•.

ยน ื“ื™ื•ื™ื“ ื’ืจื™ื™ื‘ืจ ื”ื•ื ืื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืœื•ื’ ืืžืจื™ืงืื™ ื•ืžืžื ื”ื™ื’ื™ ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืžื—ืื” Occupy Wall-Street. ื”ื•ื ื ืกืข ืœืžืฉืœื—ืช ื—ืงืจ ื‘ืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื•ืœืื—ืจื™ื” ืคืจืกื ืžืืžืจ ื‘ื’ืจื“ื™ืืŸ ื‘ื• ื”ืฉื•ื•ื” ืืช ืชื ื•ืขืช ื”ืคื•ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ืช ืœื–ืคื˜ื™ืกื˜ื™ื ื‘ืฆ'ื™ืืคืก (ืžืงืกื™ืงื•) ื•ืœืื ืจื›ื™ืกื˜ื™ื ื‘ืžืœื—ืžืช ื”ืื–ืจื—ื™ื ื‘ืกืคืจื“. ื”ืฆื™ื˜ื•ื˜ ื”ื "ืœ ืžืชื•ืš ืจืื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืขืจืš ืœืืชืจ libcom.org
ยฒ ื›ืœ ื”ืฆื™ื˜ื•ื˜ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืœื•ื—ืžื•ืช ื”ื›ื•ืจื“ื™ื•ืช ื ืœืงื—ื• ืžืžืืžืจ ืฉืคื•ืจืกื ื‘ืืชืจ opendemocracy.net
ยณ ืฉื™ืจ ื”ืคืจื˜ื™ื–ื ื™ื, (ื‘ื™ื™ื“ื™ืฉ: ื–ืึธื’ ื ื™ื˜ ืงื™ื™ืŸ ืžืึธืœ) ื ื›ืชื‘ ื‘-1943 ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื™ืจืฉ ื’ืœื™ืง (1922โ€“1944), ืืกื™ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ ืฆืขื™ืจ ื‘ื’ื˜ื• ื•ื™ืœื ื”, ืœื–ื›ืจื ืฉืœ ืœื•ื—ืžื™ ืžืจื“ ื’ื˜ื• ื•ืจืฉื” ื•ื—ื‘ืจื™ื• ืฉื ืจืฆื—ื•. ื”ืฉื™ืจ ืชื•ืจื’ื ืœืขื‘ืจื™ืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ย ืื‘ืจื”ื ืฉืœื•ื ืกืงื™.
4 ืจืื™ื•ืŸ ืžืจืชืง ืขื ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื ืฉื™ืืช ื’'ืื–ื™ืจื” ืคื•ืจืกื ื‘ืืชืจ middleastsolidarity.org. ืžื™ื“ืข ื ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ื ื•ืฉื ื–ื” ื”ื•ืคื™ืขย ื‘ืžืืžืจ ืžืงื™ืฃ ืฉืคื•ืจืกื ื‘ื ื™ื• ื™ื•ืจืง ื˜ื™ื™ืžืก.
5ย ืงื”ื™ืœื™ื™ื” ื”ื™ื ื”ืชืื’ื“ื•ืช ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืœย ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ืย ื•ืงื‘ื•ืฆื•ืช. ื‘ืžืืžืจ ื–ื”ย ื”ื›ื•ื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื ืœืื™ื’ื•ื“ ืฉืœ ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื•ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ื›ืคืจ ืื• ืฉื›ื•ื ื”.
6ย ืžื•ืคื™ืข ืืฆืœ ืงืจืŸ ืจื•ืก, ืกื•ืคืจ ื•ื“ื™ืคืœื•ืžื˜ ื‘ืจื™ื˜ื™ ืฉืขืจืš ืžืฉืœื—ืช ื—ืงืจ ืœืจื•ื’'ื‘ื” ื•ืคืจืกื ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ืžืืžืจ ื‘ืคื™ื ื ืฉื™ืืœ ื˜ื™ื™ืžืก

ืฉืชืคื• ืืช ื”ื›ืชื‘ื”: